A strong country must first strengthen agriculture, and only by strengthening agriculture can the country be strong. Green development in agriculture is an important foundation for promoting comprehensive upgrading of agriculture, comprehensive development of rural areas, and increasing farmers' income and wealth. To promote green development in agriculture, the author believes that four important links should be grasped:
Firstly, we need to protect arable land resources and improve soil quality. As the saying goes, food is the top priority for the people, and soil is the top priority for food. Securing the Chinese rice bowl, arable land is the lifeblood. The No. 1 central document made a systematic deployment for the balance of cultivated land occupation and compensation, the protection of black land, the development and utilization of saline alkali land, and the responsibility of cultivated land protection. We will firmly adhere to the red line of 1.8 billion acres of arable land, not only protect the quantity of arable land, but also pay attention to soil quality. We will implement the strategy of "storing grain in the land, storing grain in technology", and build a high standard farmland that "forms a square meter of farmland, forms soil, forms a network of channels, irrigates with drought, discharges with waterlogging, is pollution-free, and has high yield". By the end of 2022, a total of 1 billion acres of farmland had been built nationwide. In 2023, 80 million acres of high standard farmland will continue to be renovated and built, laying an important foundation for the high-quality and green development of agriculture in the future.
Secondly, we need to build green barriers and achieve harmonious coexistence. Practice has shown that the farmland protection forest project, as an effective measure for rural ecological construction, helps to build a protective barrier for the farmland ecosystem, and is of great significance for regional ecological security and the improvement of human living environment. Consolidating the achievements of returning farmland to forests and grasslands and providing green ecological barriers for farmland in plain and hilly areas is undoubtedly the basic guarantee for stable and high grain yield. It will play an irreplaceable role in adjusting and improving the structure and functions of the fragile farmland ecosystem that is prone to disasters, and help maintain a sustained and stable level of high productivity and high ecological environmental benefits. The establishment of a rural ecological barrier system not only improves the regional environment, but also helps to promote the sustainable development of agriculture and animal husbandry, playing a unique and important role in building an agricultural power with harmonious coexistence between humans and nature. We should fully leverage the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas, guide the development of ecological resources according to the situation, develop tourism and sightseeing agriculture, and build a system of rural scenery and farming culture, promoting the integration of industrial ecology and ecological industrialization.
Thirdly, we need to strengthen environmental governance and maintain ecological balance. Adhere to the principles of resource conservation, environmental friendliness, high quality and efficiency, and green development, deeply implement the dual reduction measures for agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, establish a monitoring system for agricultural ecological environment protection, strengthen the prevention and control of heavy metal pollution sources such as cadmium in agricultural soil, and strengthen the safe use and risk control of contaminated farmland. Strictly implement the fishing ban system, continue to carry out the mother river recovery operation, protect water resources and improve utilization efficiency, and scientifically implement comprehensive management of rural rivers and lakes. Strictly crack down on the illegal introduction of alien species, implement major measures to prevent and control invasive species, and strengthen the standardized management of "exotic pet" trading and release; We will improve the system of fallow farmland rotation, implement relevant subsidy policies, and introduce ecological protection compensation regulations. Accelerate the promotion and application of technology for reducing agricultural inputs and increasing efficiency, promote the integration of water and fertilizer, establish and improve a collection and utilization system for agricultural waste such as straw, agricultural film, pesticide packaging waste, livestock and poultry manure, and promote the construction of agricultural green development pilot areas and observation and experimental bases according to local conditions.
Fourthly, establish a big food concept and promote green development. Build a diversified food supply system with Chinese characteristics, accelerate the construction of a diversified food supply system that integrates grain economy and feeding, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishing, and plants, animals, and microorganisms, and formulate implementation plans in different fields. Promote the transformation and upgrading of grassland animal husbandry, make rational use of grassland resources, and promote regional rotational grazing; Build a high-quality water-saving, high-yield and stable yield forage production base, accelerate the development of grass industry with different characteristics in different regions, vigorously develop silage, speed up the promotion of straw breeding, and promote the development of grain saving, high-quality and efficient animal husbandry. Developing understory planting and breeding in mountainous areas, scientifically defining restricted breeding areas, and promoting the development of circular agriculture for agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fungi; Fully utilize regional advantages, implement three-dimensional planting and breeding technology, and develop surface ecological fisheries; Build modern marine ranches and develop deep-water cages, breeding factory ship and other deep-water and offshore aquaculture; Cultivate and strengthen the mushroom, vegetable, fruit, algae, and processing industries, strengthen the green logistics and efficient management system, increase the supervision of food safety and agricultural product quality and safety, improve the traceability management system, fundamentally improve the competitive strength of agricultural products, and make positive contributions to the green development of agriculture and the increase of farmers' income and wealth.
(The author is a researcher at the Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Weng Boqi and Zheng Kaibin)
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